Педагогіка і фізика: несподівані паралелі між законами фізики та принципами виховання
Шахов, В. В.
Шахов, В. І.
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На підставі аналізу відомих у психології механізмів розвитку мотиваційно-ціннісної сфери особистості, її почуттів, потреб, переконань, ціннісних орієнтацій, рис характеру, обґрунтовується доцільність застосування у вихованні принципу «мінімальності виховного впливу».We tend to believe that our behavior comes from our attitudes and beliefs. However, social psychologists have experimentally proved that a possible reverse dependence: our purposes, views can be a consequence of our behavior. People usually advocate what they believe in, but they also believe in what they stand for. Purposes and deeds generate each other like chicken and egg. Based on scientifically proven psychological mechanisms of the development of the motivational-value sphere of the individual, we will try to find out why the principle does not work in the upbringing – «the more, the stronger, the better», and the opposite principle is operating – to minimize the educational effect, that is, the weaker and less noticeable the educational stimulus is used by the educator, the more the views, settings, beliefs of the pupils change more strongly. Both from the point of view of the theory of dissonance and from the point of view of the theory of self-attribution, the effect of «less – means more» has one additional consequence. Sometimes «more» can mean «less». In the presence of very strong motives, changes in settings may be less significant than those that would have occurred under the influence of moderate incentives. Mechanisms of education – these are the ways of development of the motivational-value sphere of the person in the process of assimilating his or her social experience. It must be borne in mind that mechanisms, as well as regularities, exist objectively. The principles of education are only their subjective reflection. So, we find out what social and psychological mechanisms underlie the principle of minimizing educational influence. People always try to keep a certain harmony in the system of their beliefs. When a person is aware of their contradiction or incongruence between views and behavior, there is a cognitive dissonance – an unpleasant tension, discomfort that he or she seeks to get rid of. This happens when we realize that they have acted without sufficient reasons, contrary to their convictions.