Спеціалізація синтаксичних одиниць в інформаційних газетних жанрах
Zavalniuk, I. Я.
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У статті проаналізовано синтаксичні одиниці мови української преси початку ХХІ століття на тлі диференціації газетних жанрів, схарактеризовано спеціалізовані синтаксичні структури інформаційних жанрів.В статье анализируются синтаксические единицы языка украинской прессы начала ХХІ века на фоне диференциации газетных жанров, характеризуются специализированные синтаксические структуры инфор- мационных жанров.In the article the syntactic units of the Ukrainian printed media language at the beginning of XXI century are analyzed towards the background of the newspaper genres differentiation, the specialized syntactic structures of informative genres are characterized. The syntactic units of the Ukrainian printed media language at the beginning of XXI century are relatively di-vided into two groups: a) The first group is used within all genres; they are represented by simple two components sentences, com-pound sentences, complex sentences with determined subordinate parts, complex ulticomponent sentences and paren-thetic units. b) The second group represents those syntactic units which are characteristic for some genres or separate groups of genres. It is stated, that the activity within the groups of the genres is not in equil measures. The syntactic language structure of the modern printed media language inclines to specialization of genre units, its adjustment to fulfill the specific tasks of the means of mass media and to assign many of them to some genres. One of the above mentioned specialization is in informative genres such as informative massage, chronicle, annonce, reporting, interview. The number of syntactic units appears as specialized means of the fact statement, informative description or story under certain composition conditions (laconism, formal and nominative styles) or communicative and pragmatic (the author intention, requierment of publishing house, preferences of the audience). Usually, the two components sentences with simple and complex predicates are used in short informative texts such as informative massage, chronicle, annonce (and their headings). In particular, there are simple two components sentences with nominative subjects of a country, city or organization etc., which serve as synonyms of the nouns with the meaning of a person or a group of persons, metonymical denoting them and systemically cultivating the same fea-tures with the help of the verbs or mental actions that are not typical for them beyond the newspaper discourse. Recently, the active usage of one component impersonal sentences with the main part of the sentences which is expressed by impersonal predicative form (–но, - то) is seen in the informative genres. It proves deeper ukrainization within the mass media. However, one component indefinite-personal sentences are used not so often, that is why the accent is made on the action, but not on the performer. Complex sentence (syndetical and asyndetical) is typical only for the informative mini genres (informative message, chronicle), one part of which shows the fact, and the other indicates the mode of significance. Besides, for the above mentioned mini genres it is typical to use the specific structural and semantic form of complex sentence (syndetical and asyndetical) which is common with the direct speech and words of the author, but written without quo-tation marks and other punctuation attributes of the direct speech. Informative message about the weather has incomplete condensed and elliptical sentences. It serves for stabil-ity form, distinctive features of the syntax in informative contexts. Some units are often used in the informative genres of infrastructure level, in particular parenthetic sentences, and not so common phrases which exist within main thought, pointing on the information source. The journalist can intensify the truth of the message, depict its objectivity and official character with the help of such constructions. The syntactic composition of informative genres subjected to its functional purpose of use, that is to inform about some events, to make the fact statement. The intention to present more information by means of the small amount of materials determines the usage of both simple, semantically correct constructions, and complex, semantically branched constructions, parenthetic units and homogeneous members of the sentence. These syntactic means present first of all communicative and stylistic functions and are directed to inform the audience.